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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 144-148

The incidence of retinopathy of prematurity and the common risk factors associated with it: A retrospective study in a tertiary care center in Central Kerala

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Government Medical College, Ernakulam, Kerala, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Ernakulam, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Deepa Molathe Gopalan
Department of Ophthalmology, Government Medical College, Ernakulam, Kerala
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/kjo.kjo_73_21

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Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the incidence and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) among newborn babies screened at a public sector teaching hospital in Central Kerala. Materials and Methods: A retrospective case record-based study that included all newborns screened at the study center from May 2015 to May 2017. Newborn babies with significant media opacities and missing data were excluded from this study. A detailed ophthalmic assessment was done and association of ROP with maternal and perinatal risk factors was assessed. Results: Thirty-nine (6.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.02, 9.23) of the 565 newborns screened at the department had ROP. This included 14 (2.48%) babies with Stage 1, 17 (3.01%) babies with Stage 2, and 8 (1.42%) babies with plus disease. Placenta previa or abruption (odds ratio [OR] 3.72, 95% CI: 1.32, 10.52), Respiratory distress syndrome (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.05, 4.01) and hyaline membrane disease (OR: 4.19, 95% CI: 1.96, 8.99), a birth weight <2500 g (adjusted OR: 5.06, 95% CI: 1.20, 21.32) were associated with ROP. The risk of ROP reduced significantly with every unit increase of birth weight in a linear regression model (coefficient = ‒511.5, R2 = 0.03). Conclusion: The incidence of ROP is lower in this study population compared to reports from other areas of India. The significant associations with birth weight and gestational age are important as global preterm births are increasing and may possibly lead to an epidemic of ROP More ophthalmologists must be trained in the management of ROP and integrated with neonatal intensive care services.

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