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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 14-21

Amblyopia – An update

Department of Ophthalmology, Government Medical College, Thrissur, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sujatha Nambudiri
Department of Ophthalmology, Government Medical College, Thrissur, Kerala
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/kjo.kjo_13_21

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Amblyopia is the most common cause for preventable monocular visual loss in children. Visual system at birth is at a stage of dramatic developmental neural plasticity. Abnormal visual impulses from eyes (e.g., visual deprivation and refractive error) can affect normal anatomical and functional organization of the system. Abnormal cortical changes thus produced can be reversed if proper treatment is instituted during this time. This so-called critical period was thought to extend from birth to 7–8 years. However, now, it is understood that cortical plasticity though reduced may extend up to 6th decade of life and this accounts for increased interest in the management of adult amblyopia. Early detection and instituting treatment on detection are important for achieving better outcomes. Classical amblyopia treatment modalities include optical correction of significant refractive errors, occlusion therapy and penalization. Pharmacologic therapy, binocular therapy, and liquid crystal display eyeglasses are the newer treatment options. This review gives a simplified update of amblyopia including simplified pathophysiological concept in different types of amblyopia which will be useful to the clinician. Recent treatment options available for treatment including that in adult amblyopia are also discussed. Literature search using Google scholar, PubMed with a combination of words appropriate to this article was done and relevant articles were reviewed.

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