• Users Online: 264
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 263-267

Functional blindness: Blepharospasm with apraxia of eyelid opening

Eye Clinic, Kartal Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Titap Yazicioglu
Konaklar mh. Sebboy Sok. Petekler Sit. G/B D: 18, Yenilevent, Istanbul
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/kjo.kjo_42_20

Rights and Permissions

Purpose: The purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of protractor myectomy surgery in patients with severe blepharospasm whose daily life is severely impaired. Materials and Methods: Records of fifty patients with benign, essential blepharospasm were examined retrospectively and seven were included in the study. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmological and neurological examination. The severity and frequency of spasm was determined by Jankovic Rating Scale, ranging from 0 to 4, and six daily activities were determined by Blepharospasm Disability Index. The primary indication for protractor myectomy was poor response to serial botulinum toxin injections. The main outcome measure was based on whether the spasms were fully healed or the need for additional botox application. Results: Fourteen eyes of seven patients with significant functional disability were included in the study. Excessive blinking and visual disability were the most common symptoms seen in all patients, and all had previously used one or more medications. Myectomy surgery was performed in all patients who were resistant to serial botulinum toxin injections. Of the 14 eyelids, 85.7% showed resolution of spasms and no longer required botulinum toxin treatment following surgery. One patient with keratitis sequelae and dry eye was given botulinum 1 month after the surgery. One patient with residual blepharospasm in the lower eyelid underwent lower eyelid myectomy and blepharoplasty. Transient periorbital edema, hematoma, and echymosis developed following surgery. The patients were followed up for 2 years, and excellent cosmetic result with no contracture was observed in all patients. Conclusion: Protractor myectomy is an effective treatment modality in cases of blepharospasm with severe functional disability.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded32    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal