|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 80-82
Allergic conjunctival granuloma with Splendore–Hoeppli phenomenon
Sushma Ananthakrishna, Marian Pauly
Department of Orbit, Oculoplasty and Ocular Oncology, Giridhar Eye Institute, Kochi, Kerala, India
|Date of Submission||12-Dec-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||13-Dec-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||17-Apr-2020|
Dr. Marian Pauly
Department of Orbit, Oculoplasty and Ocular Oncology, Giridhar Eye Institute, Ponneth Temple Road, Kadavanthra, Kochi - 682 020, Kerala
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Allergic conjunctival granuloma (ACG) or Splendore–Hoeppli phenomenon (SHP) (asteroid bodies) is characterized by microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, and parasites) or biologically inert substances surrounded by radiating intensely eosinophilic material thought to be due to the deposition of antigen–antibody complexes and debris from the host inflammatory cells. Noninfective pathologies (hypereosinophilic syndrome and ACGs) demonstrate this phenomenon occasionally. The purpose of this case report is to report a case of ACG with SHP in a 59-year-old female with a presumed noninfectious etiology which completely resolved with surgical excision.
Keywords: Allergic conjunctival granuloma, multinucleated giant cells, Splendore–Hoeppli
|How to cite this article:|
Ananthakrishna S, Pauly M. Allergic conjunctival granuloma with Splendore–Hoeppli phenomenon. Kerala J Ophthalmol 2020;32:80-2
| Introduction|| |
Splendore–Hoeppli phenomenon (SHP) is a rare but very distinct pathological entity characterized by the histological appearance of an amorphous, acellular eosinophilic material surrounded by epithelioid histiocytes, multinucleated giant cells, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. It has been reported to occur primarily in infectious processes. Hypereosinophilic syndrome and allergic conjunctival granulomas (ACGs) are noninfectious disorders that may also be associated with SHP., The SHP associated with the conjunctiva is rarely reported in the medical literature.
| Case Report|| |
A 59-year-old female with a history of swelling in the right eye upper lid of 2 months duration, gradually progressing in size, associated with pain and redness. She was on treatment with an alternate form of medicine for the same initially for 1.5 months. Since the symptoms were persisting, she presented to us. She was a known case of diabetes mellitus of 12 years' duration and bronchial asthma of 15 years' duration on treatment. She gave a history of lid edema and protrusion of the right eye 2 years back. She was treated for the same as myositic form of pseudotumor with intravenous corticosteroid injections.
On examination, her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20, N6 both eyes. The anterior segment examination revealed apparent ptosis of the right upper lid with obliteration of the upper lid crease. Ill-defined reddish elevated lesion in superior bulbar conjunctiva extending laterally and medially was noted, the posterior extent of which was not visible [Figure 1] and [Figure 2]. Extraocular movements were full and painless. Intraocular pressure was 14 mm Hg. Fundus was within normal limits. The left eye was within normal limits.
|Figure 1: Apparent ptosis of the right upper eyelid with increase in upper eyelid fullness |
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|Figure 2: Ill-defined reddish elevated lesion in superior bulbar conjunctiva|
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Computerized tomography of the orbit was done which did not reveal any evidence of a space-occupying lesion [Figure 3].
|Figure 3: Computerized tomography of the orbit-No evidence of space occupying lesion|
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An excisional biopsy of the lesion was planned. She underwent excisional biopsy under local anesthesia which revealed epithelioid histiocytes, Langerhans giant cells, lymphocytes, and a diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in subepithelial stroma of the conjunctiva which was suggestive of allergic granuloma of the conjunctiva with SHP [Figure 4].
|Figure 4: Epithelioid histiocytes, langerhans giant cells, lymphocytes and a diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in subepithelial stroma of the conjunctiva (H and E, ×10)|
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Peripheral smear was negative for filarial parasite. Her absolute eosinophil count and S. IgE were within normal limits.
The lesion completely disappeared and had no recurrence in the 6-month follow-up. She was symptom free in her last follow-up visit [Figure 5]a and [Figure 5]b.
|Figure 5: (a) Patient at 6 months follow-up. (b) Patient at 6 months follow-up with complete resolution of conjunctival lesions|
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| Discussion|| |
SHP is characterized by an unusual histopathological pattern of amorphous eosinophilic material surrounded by granulomatous inflammation with an abundance of eosinophils. It has been postulated to be caused by both infectious (fungi, bacteria, and parasites) and noninfectious etiologies (hypereosinophilic syndrome and ACGs). This phenomenon was first discovered and published by Splendore in 1908. Splendore initially observed the phenomenon surrounding fungal spores. This observation was later validated by Hoeppli in 1932, who noticed a similar fringe of eosinophilic material surrounding schistosoma eggs.
The exact causation is unknown.,, Investigations have shown that the amorphous, acellular material contains high levels of antigen–antibody complexes, namely IgM, IgG, and complement C3,,, and a high concentration of eosinophil major basic protein.
Ashton and Cook noted that histologically, the sharply demarcated granuloma consisted of granular eosinophilic centers containing nuclear debris encircled by epithelioid cells along with giant cells and even more peripherally by an inflammatory infiltrate dominated by eosinophils. These observations are common to most reported cases, and the findings in our case are similar.,,,,,
There is no established treatment for the SHP. The use of topical or systemic corticosteroids is controversial because this was found to be of no benefit in many patients, as demonstrated in a patient in whom the SHP developed under high-dose oral steroids. There have been reports of a successful outcome after the use of topical cyclosporine A for 18 months and tacrolimus eye drops. Few studies have shown that excisional biopsy of the granuloma is the therapy of choice which has been supported by our experience.
Our experience with this patient concludes that ACG/SHP should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses in patients with superior conjunctival nodules, especially in patients with allergic or hypersensitivity predisposition. Our case report adds to the noninfectious causes of SHP.
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]