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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 29  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 197-202

A comparative study of the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity between small-for-gestational-age and appropriate-for-gestational-age preterm babies in North Kerala

Department of Ophthalmology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kannur, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. N V Latha
Department of Ophthalmology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Pariyaram, Kannur - 670 503, Kerala
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/kjo.kjo_94_17

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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants with appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based prospective descriptive study was conducted on all cases of preterm babies <34 weeks of gestation and/or <1500 g of birth weight admitted in a tertiary care center, who were sent for ROP screening. Babies were divided into two groups using Lubchenco growth chart. Group 1 consisted of all AGA preterm babies. Group 2 consisted of SGA preterm babies. Screening and staging of ROP were done. Babies were managed appropriately. Data were entered and analyzed. Results: Out of the 300 babies examined, 67 babies were SGA and rest 233 were AGA. The overall incidence of ROP was 29% and it was increased in SGA group to 40% compared to AGA group, which was 25.8%. SGA had a significant association with ROP. Other significant factors were oxygen delivery, mechanical ventilation, sepsis, respiratory distress syndrome, surfactant, apnea, blood transfusions, and acidosis. Maternal factors such as oligohydramnios, premature rupture of membranes, and preeclampsia were also associated with ROP significantly. On multivariate analysis, apnea, blood transfusion, low partial pressure of oxygen, lower gestational age, and maternal gestational diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors. Conclusion: The incidence of ROP is higher in SGA compared to AGA. Being small for gestation is a risk factor for developing ROP.

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