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Update on clinical characteristics and management of uveitic macular edema
Jyotirmay Biswas, Radha Annamalai, Mominul Islam
January-April 2017, 29(1):4-8
Cystoid macular edema is a complication of uveitis which can lead to severe visual impairment if left untreated. Uveitic macular edema occurs when the balance between the water entering the eye and pumped out of the eye is altered thus losing equilibrium in the physiologic function of the retina. Edema has a negative impact on visual recovery in patients with uveitis and may continue to exist despite control of uveitis. This delayed resolution of edema observed clinically and by imaging is most frequent following intermediate uveitis, birdshot retinochoroidopathy, sarcoid uveitis, panuveitis, and iridocyclitis associated with human leukocyte antigen B27. Literature about management of uveitic macular edema is limited, and no consensus has been reached with regard to management protocol. Several treatment options exist including corticosteroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, immunomodulatory agents, implants, and surgery. These therapies can be administered through various routes such as oral, topical, periocular, or intravitreal injections. A response to treatment is seen as decrease in macular thickness and improvement in visual acuity.
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Safety and efficacy of Razumab – The new biosimilar in India: Our experience
VV Sameera, AG Apoorva, Shrinivas Joshi, AS Guruprasad
September-December 2016, 28(3):180-185
The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of biosimilar intravitreal ranibizumab (Razumab) for the treatment of chorioretinal vascular diseases such as diabetic macular edema (DME), neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), and macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusions (RVOs).
A prospective analysis was performed on consented patients with DME (Group 1), nAMD (Group 2), and macular edema secondary to RVO (Group 3). All patients received Razumab at baseline. Snellen visual acuity assessment, anterior segment and fundus evaluation, fundus photo, and optical coherence tomography imaging were done at days 0, 1, 7, and 30, respectively. The International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision standard electroretinography (ERG) was performed at baseline and day 30 (23 eyes who could afford the investigation). Primary and secondary outcome measures were safety parameters that included signs of clinical and ERG toxicity and changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT), respectively.
One hundred and twenty-three eyes of 95 patients received biosimilar intravitreal ranibizumab injection between November 2015 and April 2016. No serious drug-related ocular or systemic adverse events were identified. Mean pretreatment BCVA was 0.67 ± 0.41 logMAR with CMT 345.90 ± 128.84 μm and postinjection BCVA at day 30 was 0.57 ± 0.37 logMAR with CMT reducing to 287.66 ± 90.28 μm, indicating statistical significance (
= 0.001 and
< 0.0001, respectively) for all groups.
The biosimilar intravitreal ranibizumab for DME, nAMD, and macular edema secondary to RVO was tolerated over a month with improvements in BCVA and CMT without detectable ocular and systemic toxicity. While the long-term safety and efficacy remain unknown, these short-term results suggest that biosimilar ranibizumab could become a safe, low-cost therapy for macular diseases.
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Real-world scenario of retinopathy of prematurity in Kerala
Anubhav Goyal, A Giridhar, Mahesh Gopalakrishnan
January-April 2017, 29(1):30-34
The objective was to study the incidence and risk factors predisposing to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and to assess the outcome after laser photocoagulation.
This was a retrospective cohort observational study.
Materials and Methods:
Infants admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of 12 referral hospitals in Kerala between May 2015 and June 2016 were followed up till retinal vascularization completes. Preterm infants with birth weight <1700 g and gestation >34 weeks were screened for ROP at 4 weeks after birth or 31–33 postconceptional age, whichever was later. Infants with birth weight >1700 g and gestation >35 weeks were screened only on neonatologist's discretion. All infants were screened according to the Indian guidelines of type 1 and 2 ROP. We treated both eyes of all infants showing threshold ROP. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).
The incidence of ROP in 622 infants screened was 158 (25.4%), of which threshold ROP was seen in 61 (9.80%). No ROP was found in infants weighing >2000 g or with a gestational age >36 weeks. Risk factors predisposing to ROP were hours on ventilator, hemoglobin%, oxygen therapy, and number of blood transfusions, which were more significant in infants with type 1 or threshold ROP than type 2 ROP. Out of 97 infants with type 2 ROP, we saw stage 1 in 31 (30.92%), stage 2 in 59 (60.82%), and stage 3 in 7 (7.21%) infants. 61 (9.80%) infants with threshold ROP were treated with laser photocoagulation. Aggressive posterior ROP or rush disease was seen in 29 (47.54%) of 61 infants with type 1 ROP. Only 2 (3.27%) infants showed falciform fold over macula and 1 (1.63%) infant was blind due to retinal detachment.
One-fourth of the infants showed ROP, of which one-tenth needed laser photocoagulation, the outcome of which was good. Risk factors predisposing to ROP were low hemoglobin, high oxygen therapy, increased number of blood transfusions, and hours of ventilator.
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