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MAJOR REVIEW
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 10-26

An update on thyroid eye disease: Current knowledge, preferred practice patterns, and future therapies


1 Department of Oculoplasty, Orbit and Ocular Oncology, HORUS Specialty Eye Care, Bengaluru, Karnataka; Department of Oculoplasty, Orbit and Ocular Oncology, Amardeep Eye Care, Kollam, Kerala, India
2 Department of Oculoplasty, Orbit and Ocular Oncology, HORUS Specialty Eye Care, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Fairooz P Manjandavida
Department of Oculoplasty, Orbit and Ocular Oncology, HORUS Specialty Eye Care, Bengaluru - 560 078, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/kjo.kjo_87_19

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Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (thyroid eye disease [TED], thyroid-associated orbitopathy, or Graves' orbitopathy) is the most common, yet a complex and poorly understood autoimmune orbital pathology. It occurs in association with systemic dysthyroid states, most commonly presenting with hyperthyroidism, but also occurs in association with hypothyroidism or euthyroidism. Despite the ongoing research, the pathogenesis and effective treatment strategies remain obscure, hence presenting a challenge for the treating ophthalmologist. The ocular presentation can vary from mild disease to severe irreversible sight-threatening complications. Ocular manifestations can follow the thyroid dysfunction, present parallel to it, or seldom precedes it. The ocular disease has its own natural course divided into an active and inactive phase. Scoring individual patients for the severity of disease has been frequently revised. The clinical examination, activity, and severity aid the ophthalmologist to decide the stage of the disease and come up with the treatment strategy for each patient. Management strategies include a multidisciplinary team effort. Recently, we have witnessed a leap to newer targeted biologic therapy that not only improves the course of the disease but also the quality of life of these patients. In this review, we present an update of the current understanding of etiopathogenesis, clinical features, and management options for this common yet challenging orbital inflammatory disease.


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